Doc:Adding Layers/es

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Introducción

En el tutorial anterior, hiciste una primera animación sencilla al cambiar los atributos de objetos primarios, tal como: posición, color, y tamaño. Estas formas simples, sin embargo, son casi insuficientes al momento de crear personajes u objetos avanzados. Para ello, Synfig utiliza Capas. Estas son similares a las capas que se conocen en otras aplicaciones para dibujo, como por ejemplo GIMP.

No obstante, las capas de Synfig se diferencian de las capas comunes en, por lo menos, dos características:

  1. Puedes organizar las capas en grupos jerárquicos.
  2. Puedes usar capas superiores para cambiar el comportamiento (o estética) de capas inferiores.

Hacerlo es bastante fácil. Observemos un ejemplo sencillo.

  1. Crea un nuevo archivo de duración 0. No hace falta molestarse con una linea de tiempo en este momento.
  2. Crea un rectángulo sencillo con la herramienta correspondiente.

Rectangle-tool-on-panel.jpg

Adding-layers-tutorial-0.jpg

Combinación de capas

Aquí hay dos maneras de proceder. Primero, toma la herramienta escala (gradient tool) de la caja de herramientas (toolbox) de Synfig , y cliquea sobre el lienzo una vez. Deberías notar que una nueva capa se agregó en la ventana de las capas, esta nueva capa se llama 'Gradient'(escala). Esto no tiene nada de especial. Si no ves ninguna escala en el color, sino simplemente color liso, toma la normal tool, cliquea dentro del lienzo para activar los puntos (ducks) de la escala. Sobre el lienzo tiene que haber aparecido un punto, arrástralo hasta que una escala aparezca.

Adding-layers-tutorial-1.jpg

Ahora tienes una escala, pero no como querías, ésta cubre todo el lienzo mientras que el objetivo era tener una escala dentro del rectángulo. Reparémoslo ahora.

Select the gradient and the rectangle layer in the Layers Panel. They should appear with a blue background now. Then, context-click (ie. right-click on Windows and Linux) and select 'Encapsulate' from the menu. The view of your layer tab should change now, showing a small box called 'Inline Canvas' with an arrow in front.

You can treat this layer like any other layer -- move it around, duplicate it, copy and paste it. By clicking on the arrow you can expand the inline canvas to see its contents, your previous two layers, the gradient and the rectangle.

If you want to change the name of it to something more descriptive, just select the layer in the layer tab and click on its label. Then you just edit it in place. You can do this for ANY layer, and are strongly encouraged to do so.

Using locality

Adding-layers-tutorial-2.jpg

However, there is still a problem: The gradient still covers the whole canvas althought we wanted it to be restricted on the rectangle. To do so, activate the gradient layer in the Layer tab. Now go to the Params Panel (by default a tab in the Params-Children-Keyframes window), and search the attribute called 'Blend Method'. Double-click the entry and select 'Onto' from the appearing drop-down menu.

Adding-layers-tutorial-3.jpg

The gradient should now be restricted to the rectangle. Congratulations! You just made your first interacting layers with Synfig.

Adding-layers-tutorial-4.jpg

If only for the additional organization, encapsulating layers into inline canvases dramatically improves the ease of use of Synfig Studio. But lots of programs can do this. The concept of scope as just demonstrated sets Synfig apart from other programs with layer hierarchies.

However, a layer can only modify the data that it gets from directly below it. In other words, if you were to throw a Blur Layer on top of the layers inside the inline canvas we just created, it would just blur them -- anything under the inline canvas would not be blurred!

Let's try it. Create two red circles and in the Layers Panel move them under the inline canvas. Now our inline canvas (with rectangle and gradient) is in front of those two circles.

Adding-layers-tutorial-5.jpg

Expand the inline canvas to show its contents, and select the top layer inside of it (should be the "Gradient" layer). This is where we want to insert new layer. Create another circle filled with a black color. Layer with circle will be created over the gradient layer inside the inline canvas.

Adding-layers-tutorial-6.jpg Adding-layers-tutorial-7.jpg

Now, right click on the layer with black circle in the Layers Panel and a popup menu will appear. The first item in that popup is "New Layer". Inside of the "New Layer" menu, you'll see several categories of layers you could create, but what we want is a blur, so goto the Blur category and select the "Blur" layer. (so that would be "New Layer->Blurs->Blur")

Adding-layers-tutorial-8.jpg


Well, it blurred... but something is not quite right - outside edge of contents of the inline canvas is still sharp. It is doing this because the blend method of the blur defaulted to "Composite" (you can change the default blend method for new layers from the New Layer Defaults section of the Toolbox). What we want is a blend method of "Straight". Just select the blur layer, and change the Blend Method to "Straight" in the Params Panel.

NOTE: I will probably change the way that default blend methods are handled in the future--as the way it is currently handled seems to only create hassles like this.

Adding-layers-tutorial-9.jpg Adding-layers-tutorial-10.jpg

Ok, now we have all of the contents of the inline canvas blurred, but everything under it is sharp!

Digging further...

If you care to look into Synfig's main menu 'Layer > New Layer' you will note quite a lot of different possibilities for making layers. Several of them sound rather unusual; 'Transform > Rotate' for example. You can use this to add new attributes to your objects. And just like other, basic attributes in the previous animation tutorial, you can change them to be different on certain keyframes. Synfig will take care of interpolating the steps in between.

For example, you could create a some shape and add a Rotate Layer over it. Combine this with the lesson learned in the last tutorial and you can create a rotating effect. This technique is used for creation of Cut-out Animation.


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